Monday, 3 April 2017


Free radical substitution

1)Preparation Of Alkenes:
   -Dehydration: Conc. H2SO4 (heat)
   -Dehydrohalogenation: KOH, ethanol

2)Chemical Reaction:
   -Hydrogenation: H2, Pt (Pt=catalyst, can be Ni or Pd etc)
   -Hydration: H30+ or H20,H+
   -(i) Hydrohalogenation: Markovnikov: HX
    (ii) Hydrohalogenation: Anti-Markovnikov: HBr, ROOR(peroxides)
   -(i) Halogenation: X2,CH2Cl2 (inert) dihalides major
    (ii) Halogenation: X2, H2O (Forms Halohydrin as major product)
        {Halohydrin:  R-CH(OH)=C(X)-R  }

3)Oxidation Of Alkenes:
   -Cold KMnO4 (dilute), OH-
   -Hot KMnO4/conc. H+
   -Ozonolysis: (i)O3 (ii)Zn, H2O

1)Chemical Reactions on Benzene Ring:
   -Halogenation: X2, FeX3
   -Nitration: Conc. HNO3 '&' Conc. H2SO4
   -Friedel-Craft Alkylation: RCl, AlCl3
   -Friedel-Craft Acylation: R(Cl)C=O, AlCl3

2)Chemical Reactions of Toluene:
   -Oxidation: KMnO4, H3O+ (heat)
   -Halogenation: X2, uv

3)Additional Notes:
CH3 of toluene is an ortho, para director. Thus, nitration, F-C Alkylation, F-C Acylation and reaction with X2, CH2Cl2 will not disturb the CH3 group on toluene but it will substitute with H on benzene ring at Ortho and Para position. Both Ortho and Para formed are major products.

1)Chemical Reactions:
   -NaOH(aq) (forms alcohol
   -CH3CH2OH (forms ether)
   -NH3, ethanol (forms RNH2)
   -CH3ONa, ethanol (forms ether)
   -KCN, ethanol (forms RCN)
   -CH3CH2COONa, ethanol (forms ester)

2)Gridnard Reagent, RMgX:
   -Formation of RMgX:
    {  RX+Mg, dry ether -> RMgX  }
   -Reaction of RMgX with:
    -metanal, H3O+ : forms primary ROH
    -other aldehydes besides methanal, H3O+ : forms secondary ROH
    -ketone, H3O+ : forms tertiary ROH
    -H3O+ : forms alkane

Slamat mnduduki PSPM II😄✌
Share3! Ingt, jika kita permudahkn urusan org lain, Allah juga akan permudahkn urusan kita.. Insyaa AlLah

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